Magma evolution of Quaternary minor volcanic centres in southern Peru, Central Andes

  • Delacour A
  • Gerbe M
  • Thouret J
 et al. 
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Abstract  Minor centres in the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) of the Andes occur in different places and are essential indicators of magmatic processes leading to formation of composite volcano. The Andahua–Orcopampa and Huambo monogenetic fields are located in a unique tectonic setting, in and along the margins of a deep valley. This valley, oblique to the NW–SE-trend of the CVZ, is located between two composite volcanoes (Nevado Coropuna to the east and Nevado Sabancaya to the west). Structural analysis of these volcanic fields, based on SPOT satellite images, indicates four main groups of faults. These faults may have controlled magma ascent and the distribution of most centres in this deep valley shaped by en-echelon faulting. Morphometric criteria and 14C age dating attest to four main periods of activity: Late Pleistocene, Early to Middle Holocene, Late Holocene and Historic. The two most interesting features of the cones are the wide compositional range of their lavas (52.1 to 68.1 wt.% SiO2) and the unusual occurrence of mafic lavas (olivine-rich basaltic andesites and basaltic andesites). Occurrence of such minor volcanic centres and mafic magmas in the CVZ may provide clues about the magma source in southern Peru. Such information is otherwise difficult to obtain because lavas produced by composite volcanoes are affected by shallow processes that strongly mask source signatures. Major, trace, and rare earth elements, as well as Sr-, Nd-, Pb- and O-isotope data obtained on high-K calc-alkaline lavas of the Andahua–Orcopampa and Huambo volcanic province characterise their source and their evolution. These lavas display a range comparable to those of the CVZ composite volcanoes for radiogenic and stable isotopes (87Sr/86Sr: 0.70591–0.70694, 143Nd/144Nd: 0.512317–0.512509, 206Pb/204Pb: 18.30–18.63, 207Pb/204Pb: 15.57–15.60, 208Pb/204Pb: 38.49–38.64, and δ 18O: 7.1–10.0‰ SMOW), attesting to involvement of a crustal component. Sediment is absent from the Peru–Chile trench, and hence cannot be the source of such enrichment. Partial melts of the lowermost part of the thick Andean continental crust with a granulitic garnet-bearing residue added to mantle-derived arc magmas in a high-pressure MASH [melting, assimilation, storage and homogenisation] zone may play a major role in magma genesis. This may also explain the chemical characteristics of the Andahua–Orcopampa and Huambo magmas. Fractional crystallisation processes are the main governors of magma evolution for the Andahua–Orcopampa and Huambo volcanic province. An open-system evolution is, however, required to explain some O-isotopes and some major and trace elements values. Modelling of AFC processes suggests the Charcani gneisses and the local Andahua–Orcopampa and Huambo basement may be plausible contaminants.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Deep crustal assimilation
  • Fractional crystallization
  • Magma source
  • Monogenetic cones
  • Peruvian Andes
  • Quaternary activity

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  • Adélie Delacour

  • Marie Christine Gerbe

  • Jean Claude Thouret

  • Gerhard Wörner

  • Perrine Paquereau-Lebti

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