When children of diverse disabilities and students with ELL rulings are included in traditional classrooms, regular education teachers face a dilemma: How to teach the standard curriculum and teach the new inclusion students? How do they teach students with different heritages and linguistic backgrounds? Differentiated Instruction (DI) is content, process, and product related to student learning. DI can be implemented through Retrofitting the curriculum or Universally De- signing the curriculum for learning. This article operationalizes the terminology related to DI, Retrofit Framework, and Universal Design for Learning (UDL). A student vignette contrasts how the elements of Retrofit verses UDL come to life in the teaching-learning process. After reading the vignettes, the reader will determine which pathway could lead to more positive learning envi- ronment for learners with and without exceptionalities.
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