Making things happen: Reciprocal relationships between work characteristics and personal initiative in a four-wave lonciitudinal structural equation model

  • Frese M
  • Garst H
  • Fay D
  • 1


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • N/A


    Citations of this article.


The authors used the frameworks of reciprocal determinism and occupational socialization to study the effects of work characteristics (consisting of control and complexity of work) on personal initiative (PI)-mediated by control orientation (a 2nd-order factor consisting of control aspiration, perceived opportunity for control, and self-efficacy) and the reciprocal effects of PI on changes in work characteristics. They applied structural equation modeling to a longitudinal study with 4 measurement waves (N = 268) in a transitional economy: East Germany. Results confirm the model plus 1 additional, nonhypothesized effect. Work characteristics had a synchronous effect on PI via control orientation (full mediation). There were also effects of control orientation and of PI on later changes in work characteristics: As predicted, PI functioned as partial mediator, changing work characteristics in the long term (reciprocal effect); unexpectedly, there was a 2nd reciprocal effect of an additional lagged partial mediation of control orientation on later work characteristics. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

Author-supplied keywords

  • Models
  • Occupational psychology
  • Organizational behavior
  • Orientations
  • Studies

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • Michael Frese

  • Harry Garst

  • Doris Fay

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free