Clinical episodes and abnormal laboratory tests compatible with a diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia have been observed in patients with a diversity of syndromes, enzymopathies, and coexisting disorders thereby raising the likelihood of causal associations and heightened perioperative risk in others carrying a shared diagnosis. In the present review, we survey available published series, case reports, and the results of contracture testing in patients identified by others to be potentially predisposed to malignant hyperthermia. For most conditions, evidence for a causal relationship with malignant hyperthermia susceptibility is weak. The review concludes with suggestions for clinical management when evidence for or against an association is uncertain.
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