* Based on some research evidence, DKA is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in children who have type 1 diabetes, and cerebral edema is responsible for most of the deaths during DKA in children. (Dunger, 2004). * Based on strong research evidence, treatment of DKA requires replacement of water and electrolytes and correction of the insulin deficiency. (Dunger, 2004). * Based on some research data and consensus opinion, after providing initial volume expansion (if needed), fluid resuscitation of children who have DKA should be calculated to rehydrate evenly over at least 48 hours. Initial fluid resuscitation should be with an isotonic solution; subsequent fluid management should be with a solution that has a tonicity of at least 0.45% saline. (Dunger, 2004). * Based on strong research evidence, insulin treatment for DKA should begin at a dose of 0.1 units/kg per hour and generally should remain at or above this level until the ketoacidosis is resolved. (Dunger, 2004). * Based on some research evidence, risk factors for the development of cerebral edema during treatment of DKA include the severity of acidosis, greater hypocapnia (after adjusting for the degree of acidosis), higher blood urea nitrogen concentration at presentation, and treatment with bicarbonate. (Dunger, 2004; Glaser, 2002).
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