Hyponatremia, the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients, has been associated with high rate of mortality among both this population and nonhospitalized patients. This review describes briefly the classification and pathogenesis of hyponatremia, and, in greater detail, the management of hyponatremia with a particular emphasis on the clinical pharmacology of arginine vasopressin (AVP) antagonists. This review includes more in-depth discussion on the pharmacology of conivaptan, an AVP antagonist recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration.
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