Marine Environmental Risk Assessment of Sungai Kilim, Langkawi, Malaysia: Heavy Metal Enrichment Factors in Sediments as Assessment Indexes

  • Tajam J
  • Kamal M
  • 49

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Abstract

Concentrations of Cd, Co, Pb, and Zn in riverbed sediments from six sampling stations along the Sungai Kilim, Langkawi, Malaysia, were determined by using the Teflon Bomb Digestion. From this study, the concentrations of heavy metals in riverbed sediments were found ranging between 6.10 and 8.87  μ g/g dry weight for Co, 0.03 and 0.45  μ g/g dry weight for Cd, 59.8 and 74.9  μ g/g dry weight for Zn, and 1.06 and 11.69  μ g/g dry weight for Pb. From the observation, these areas were polluted by domestic waste, aquaculture, and tourism activities. For clarity, enrichment factor index was used to determine the level of sediment contamination in the study area. From this study, the average EF value is a bit high for Cd ( 2.15 ± 1.17 ) followed by Zn ( 1.12 ± 0.09 ), Pb ( 0.44 ± 0.32 ), and lastly, Co ( 0.36 ± 0.04 ). Based on the contamination categories, Cd was categorised as moderately enriched, while the rest of the metals studied were in deficient-to-minimally enriched by the anthropogenic sources.

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Authors

  • Jamil Tajam

  • Mohd Lias Kamal

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