To evaluate the association of acute and common chronic diseases, alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy with reduction limb defects (RLD) 453 cases of RLD from the Finnish Registry of Congenital Malformations were studied. RLD cases without additional malformations were analyzed separately. Statistical associations were observed with maternal influenza. Alcohol consumption, and smoking were likewise associated with the defects. Medication, fever and/or other factors may explain the association of RLD with influenza. The relation to smoking was not explained by alcohol consumption or mother's age, and these variables were independent of each other. © 1983.
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