Culture plays an important role in solving complex social coordination problems. To avoid cutthroat competitions among individuals striving to maximize their personal fitness, members of the society negotiate and agree on the way to make sense of the reality and on the human qualities or behaviors that are socially desirable and allowed. These consensual views are integral parts of a culture. Given the social significance of culture, many measures have been constructed to capture cultural differences along major psychological dimensions. The present review covers the psychometric properties of the measures that were developed to study cultural variations in personality, social beliefs, values, and perceived norms in the society and its residents. Although many measures have been used in cross-cultural studies (e.g., measures of self-esteem, locus of control, the Big 5 personality trait constructs), these measures were not developed to capture cultural differences in human psychology and are therefore not included in the present review. The measures reviewed here are the Value System Module, the Schwartz Value Survey, the World Values Survey, the GLOBE Cultural Values, Measure of the Horizontal and Vertical Dimensions of Individualism and Collectivism, the Cultural Orientation Scale, the Cross-cultural Personality Assessment Inventory, the Social Axioms Survey, and the Tightness and Looseness Scale. Instead of providing a comprehensive survey of all cross-cultural measures, the present review aims at illustrating representative measures that are recently developed to capture different aspects of cultural differences.
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