The 337-372 sequence of the factor VIIIa A1 subunit contains interactive sites for both zymogen factor X and the active enzyme, factor Xa. Solid phase binding studies indicated that factor Xa possessed a >20-fold higher affinity for the isolated A1 subunit of factor VIIIa compared with factor X. Heparin completely inhibited zero-length cross-linking of the 337-372 peptide to factor Xa but not to factor X. In the presence of calcium, factor Xa showed greater affinity for heparin than factor X. Studies using factor Xa mutants in which heparin-binding exosite residues were individually replaced by Ala showed that the R240A mutant was defective in recognition of the Lys36 cleavage site, generating the A137-372 intermediate with approximately 20% the catalytic efficiency of wild type. This defect likely resulted from an approximately 4-fold increase in Km for the A1 substrate because kcat values for the wild type and mutant were equivalent. Cleavage of the A1-A2 domain junction by factor Xa R240A was not blocked by the 337-372 peptide. Studies using mutant factor VIII where clustered acidic residues in the 337-372 segment were replaced by Ala showed that a factor VIIIa D361A/D362A/D363A mutant possessed a approximately 1.6-fold increase in Km for factor X compared with wild type. However, similar Km values were observed for recombinant factor X and R240A substrates. These results indicate that the binding regions of factor X and factor Xa for A1 domain overlap and that both utilize acidic residues 361-363. Furthermore, factor Xa but not factor X interacts with high affinity at this site via residues contained within the heparin-binding exosite of the proteinase.
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