Application of organic soil amendments is a traditional control method for plant-parasitic nematodes and it is considered a part of nematode-management programs. A variety of organic amendments, such as animal and green manures, compost, nematicidal plants and proteinous wastes, are used for this purpose, but nematode control efficacy is not always satisfactory. Elucidation of nematode-control mechanisms in amended soil may lead to improved efficacy or the development of more effective control techniques, although the effects of organic amendments on nematodes, microbial communities, plants and soil environments are very complex. Possible mechanisms involved in nematode suppression are: (1) release of pre-existing nematicidal compounds in soil amendments, (2) generation of nematicidal compounds, such as ammonia and fatty acids, during degradation, (3) enhancement and/or introduction of antagonistic microorganisms, (4) increase in plant tolerance and resistance, and (5) changes in soil physiology that are unsuitable for nematode behavior. Combinations of these mechanisms, rather than a single one, appear to produce nematode suppression in amended soils. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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