Purulent mediastinitis is a possible serious complication after mediastinal surgery. We report the case of a localized sternal plasmocytoma treated by sternectomy and prosthetic repair, who needed a second surgery for a fistulizing mediastinitis. Five months earlier, in another Hospital, the patient underwent sternal resection and reconstruction with a "sandwich" prosthesis (Methyl-methacrylate and Marlex mesh). Suppurative mediastinitis occurred and septic shock resolution was observed after the spontaneous opening of a mediastinal cutaneous fistula. After referring to our Unit the patient underwent extensive local and systemic preparation and nutritional support; the infected prosthesis was then removed and the gap filled by a laparoscopically-prepared omental flap. Adequate preoperative management, removal of any infected material and minimally invasive omental flap transposition allowed the successful treatment of this life-threatening condition.
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