1. Clinicians should be aware of current screening guidelines to evaluate bone health in neonates. 2. Clinicians should use biomarkers and imaging modalities appropriately to diagnose and follow patients with metabolic bone disease. Abstract Advances in neonatal care have led to increased survival rates in preterm infants. Op-timizing postnatal nutrition has been a critical factor for improved growth and out-comes in very low-birth-weight infants. Despite rapid progress in the field, obtaining comparable mineral delivery to fetal rates has been challenging. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity is a multifaceted condition primarily resulting from inad-equate mineral supply compounded by chronic illness, an immature digestive system, and hormonal imbalance. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology, di-agnosis, prevention, and treatment of metabolic bone disease.
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