The Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease in U.S. Adults

  • Chen J
  • Muntner P
  • Hamm L
 et al. 
  • 6


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • N/A


    Citations of this article.


Background: The metabolic syndrome is a common risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To examine the association between the metabolic syndrome and risk for chronic kidney disease and microalbuminuria. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Patients: Participants 20 years of age or older were studied in the chronic kidney disease (n = 6217) and microalbuminuria (n = 6125) analyses. Measurements: The metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of 3 or more of the following risk factors: elevated blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, high triglyceride level, elevated glucose level, and abdominal obesity. Chronic kidney disease was defined as a glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2, and microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g. Results: The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of chronic kidney disease and microalbuminuria in participants with the metabolic syndrome compared with participants without the metabolic syndrome were 2.60 (95% CI, 1.68 to 4.03) and 1.89 (CI, 1.34 to 2.67), respectively. Compared with participants with 0 or I 1 component of the metabolic syndrome, participants with 2, 3, 4, and 5 components of chronic kidney disease had multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of 2.21 (CI, 1.16 to 4.24), 3.38 (CI, 1.48 to 7.69), 4.23 (CI, 2.06 to 8.63), and 5.85 (CI, 3.11 to 11.0), respectively. The corresponding multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of microalbuminuria for participants with 3, 4, and 5 components were 1.62 (CI, 1.10 to 2.38), 2.45 (CI, 1.55 to 3.85), and 3.19 (CI, 1.96 to 5.19), respectively. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the metabolic syndrome might be an important factor in the cause of chronic kidney disease.

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in


  • J. Chen

  • P. Muntner

  • L.L. Hamm

  • D.W. Jones

  • V. Batuman

  • V. Fonseca

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free