With the completion of genome sequencing of more and more organisms, research focus has now been shifted from sequencing to delineating the biological functions of all genes coded within the genome of a particular organism. Methodologies of biological research are evolving from "one gene in one experiment" to "multiple genes in one experiment" paradigm. Microarrays, including DNA microarrays, protein microarrays, cell microarrays, and tissue microarrays, have proven to be extremely powerful tools for analyzing thousands of unique molecules in a biological system in a highly parallel and high throughput fashion, making it possible to gain a global picture of the system under study. In this chapter, we first discuss different formats of the microarray technologies, and then the steps involved in a microarray experiment, such as selection of probes, array-making, target preparation, hybridization, signal readout, image processing, and informatics. Finally, the applications of microarray technologies in biological research, medical diagnostics, drug discovery and development, and toxicology will be discussed. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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