Microbial risk assessment of source-separated urine used in agriculture

  • Hoglund C
  • Stenstrom T
  • Ashbolt N
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Abstract

A screening-level quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was undertaken for a urine separating sewerage system. Exposures evaluated included the handling of stored and unstored urine as well as consumption of crops fertilised with urine. Faecal cross-contamination was the source of risk and Campylobacter jejuni, Cryptosporidium parvum and rotavirus were the organisms chosen to represent different groups of enteric pathogens. Accidental ingestion of unstored urine implied a high risk (Pinf = 0.56) for infection from rotavirus whereas the risks for infection from bacteria and protozoa were approximately 1:10 000. After six months storage at 20 degrees C the risk for viral infections by accidental ingestion of 1 ml of urine was < 10(-3), the suggested acceptable risk benchmark. Ingestion of crops contaminated with urine resulted in risks of < 10(-5) after a 3-week (

Author-supplied keywords

  • Campylobacter jejuni
  • Crop fertiliser
  • Crytosporidium parvum
  • Enteric pathogens
  • QMRA
  • Risk assessment
  • Rotavirus
  • Urine separation
  • wmr 472-3

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