Neural interfaces and implants are finding more clinical applications and there are rapid technological advances for more efficient and safe design, fabrication and materials to establish high-fidelity neural interfaces. In this review paper, we highlight new developments of the microfabricated electrodes and substrates with regard to the design, materials, fabrication and their clinical applications. There is a noticeable trend towards integration of microfluidic modules on a single neural platform. In addition to the microelectrodes for neural recording and stimulation, microfluidic channels are integrated into a nerve-electrode interface to explore the rich neurochemistry present at the neural interface and exploit it for enhanced electrochemical stimulation and recording of the central and peripheral nervous system.
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