This review is concerned with recent literature on teleost fish CNS microglia. It covers not only various aspects of these cells, notably comparing them with mammalian microglia, but also points out the several potentialities neural tissue of teleosts exhibits in neurobiological research. The relationships between neurons and glial cells are considered in fish, aiming at an integrated picture of the complex ways neurons and glia communicate and collaborate in normal and injured neural tissues. In addition, attention has been paid to different teleost models according to their availability, easy maintenance in experimental conditions, possibilities of embryos manipulation and sequenced genome. The recent setting up of successful protocols for fish glia and mixed neuron-glia cultures, together with the molecular facilities offered from genome knowledge, should provide a new boost to studies about microglia and neuron-microglia relationships.
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