Adipogenesis, the complex development from preadipocytes or mesenchymal stem cells to mature adipocytes, is essential for fat formation and metabolism of adipose tissues in mammals. It has been reported to be regulated by hormones and various adipogenic transcription factors which are expressed as a transcriptional cascade promoting adipocyte differentiation, leading to the mature adipocyte phenotype. Recent findings indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small RNA molecules of approximately 22 nucleotides in length, are involved in the regulatory network of many biological processes, including cell differentiation, through post-transcriptional regulation of transcription factors and/or other genes. In this review, we focus on the recent understanding of the roles of miRNAs in adipogenesis, including the most recent and relevant findings that support the role of several miRNAs as pro- or antiadipogenic factors regulating adipogenesis in mice, human and cattle to propose the future role of miRNA in adipogenesis of farm animal models.
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