We have demonstrated three simple strategies employing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) molds for patterning carbon surfaces with two different modifiers in an 18μm line pattern. The PDMS molds are patterned with microfluidic channels (approximately 22μm wide and 49 μm deep) and form a reversible, conformal seal to the pyrolyzed photoresist film (PPF) and modified PPF surfaces. Modifiers are electrochemically grafted to the PPF surface by the reduction of aryl diazonium salts and the oxidation of primary amines. For the fill-in patterning approach, the first modifier is electrografted to the PPF surface exposed within the microchannels, and in a second grafting step after removal of the PDMS mold, the second modifier fills in the remaining surface. The selective conversion strategy involves electrografting a continuous film of the modifier to the PPF surface, sealing the PDMS mold to the modified surface and carrying out an irreversible electrochemical reaction of the modifier exposed within the microchannels. In the build-up patterning approach, the PDMS mold is sealed to the modified PPF surface, and a chemical coupling reaction is effected in the microchannels to build up the pattern. The patterns are characterized using SEM, optical microscopy, the formation of condensation figures, and SEM imaging after the assembly of Au nanoparticles. © 2006 American Chemical Society.
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