The transformation of a mixture of water and wheat flour into a viscoelastic dough was studied by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In flour particles, gluten protein fills up the space between the starch granules forming a three-dimensional network. Dough formation is the result of the adhesion of the protein networks of individual flour particles to one another and their extension during kneading. In the course of the kneading process protein films form from the strands by bidirectional extension. The strands of the gluten network consist of randomly arranged protein threads which are twisted to forrm loops and knots in the unextended state. Bidirectional extension of the gluten pulls apart these knots to platelet-like forms.
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