Minireview: Neuro-immuno-endocrine modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by gp130 signaling molecules

  • Chesnokova V
  • Melmed S
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Abstract

The neuroendocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally. The neuro-immune-endocrine interface is mediated by cytokines acting as auto/paracrine or endocrine factors regulating pituitary development, cell proliferation, hormone secretion, and feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. At birth or during neonatal ontogenesis, cytokines produce permanent alterations of HPA axis function and the stress response. Overexpressing IL-6 or leukemia inhibitory factor leads to significant changes in pituitary development and functions. Pituitary corticotroph POMC gene expression is regulated by CRH as well as several gp130 cytokines acting as neuro-immuno-endocrine modulators. Conversely, HPA axis functions modulate susceptibility or resistance to inflammatory disease. Cytokines (including IL-1, TNF, and members of the gp130 cytokine family) participate as mediators of a complex HPA axis response to stress and inflammation. Prolonged exposure to proinflammatory cytokines increases l...

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