Mitoxantrone is the first drug approved for the treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) in the United States. This assessment considers use of mitoxantrone in the treatment of MS. Mitoxantrone probably reduces the clinical attack rate and reduces attack-related MRI outcomes in patients with relapsing MS (Type B recommendation). Also, mitoxantrone may have a beneficial effect on disease progression in patients with MS whose clinical condition is worsening (Type B recommendation). The potential for serious toxicity of mitoxantrone, however, must be taken into account when considering this therapy in individual patients. Moreover, because the potential clinical benefits on disease progression appear to be only modest, the results of the single phase III trial should be replicated in another (and hopefully much larger) clinical study before this agent is widely recommended for the treatment of patients with MS.
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