Mixing, structure and scaling of the jet in crossflow

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The mixing of the round jet normal to a uniform crossflow is studied for a range of jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios, r, from 5 to 25. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone vapour seeded into the jet is used to acquire quantitative two-dimensional images of the scalar concentration field. Emphasis is placed on r = 10 and r = 20 and a few select images are acquired up to r = 200. The Reynolds number based on the jet exit diameter, d, and the exit velocity varies from 8400 to 41 500. Images are acquired for conditions in which the product rd is held constant, requiring decreasing d for increasing r. Results from this experimental study concern structural events of the vortex interaction region, and mixing and mean centreline concentration decay in the near and far fields. The results cover all three regions of the transverse jet, and suggest that the jet scales with three length scales: d, rd and r 2d. Events within the vortex interaction region display d-scaling, including the crossflow boundary layer separation and roll-up. Over the range of velocity ratios studied, the vortex interaction region shows r-dependent variations in the flow field, including the emergence of jet fluid in the wake structures for r > 10 and a slower development of the counter-rotating vortex pair (CVP) in higher-r jets. The trajectory and physical dimension of the jet in both the near and far field display rd-scaling. The near field is characterized by a centreline concentration decay along the centreline coordinate s of s -1.3, different from the decay rate (s -1) of the free jet. When normalized by rd, the decay of each velocity-ratio jet branches away from the s -1.3 decay, approaching a decay of s -2/3, a rate predicted by modelling efforts. The branch points represent a transition in the flow field from enhanced mixing to reduced mixing compared to the free jet. When normalized by r 2d, the branch points occur at a uniform jet position, s/r 2d = 0.3, which is viewed to be the division between the near and far fields. Self-similarity is not seen in the near field, but may be present in the far field. The view of the branch points as a place of transition in the flow is supported by the probability density function (p.d.f.) of concentration along the upper edge of the jet. Before the branch points, the p.d.f.s are non-marching in character, and after the branch points, they are tilted in character. Instantaneously, the CVP is asymmetric in shape and concentration. End views reveal extensive motion of the CVP and plan views show this motion can occur in both axisymmetric and sinusoidal motion. Ensemble-averaged images show the jet concentration is asymmetric about the centreline plane.

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  • S. H. SMITH

  • M. G. MUNGAL

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