Mobile emitter geolocation and tracking using TDOA and FDOA measurements

  • Mušicki D
  • Kaune R
  • Koch W
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This paper considers recursive tracking of one mobile emitter using a sequence of time difference of arrival (TDOA) and frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) measurement pairs obtained by one pair of sensors. We consider only a single emitter without data association issues (no missed detections or false measurements). Each TDOA measurement defines a region of possible emitter locations around a unique hyperbola. This likelihood function is approximated by a Gaussian mixture, which leads to a dynamic bank of Kalman filters tracking algorithm. The FDOA measurements update relative probabilities and estimates of individual Kalman filters. This approach results in a better track state probability density function approximation by a Gaussian mixture, and tracking results near the Cramer-Rao lower bound. Proposed algorithm is also applicable in other cases of nonlinear information fusion. The performance of proposed Gaussian mixture approach is evaluated using a simulation study, and compared with a bank of EKF filters and the Cramer-Rao lower bound.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Cramér-Rao bound
  • Frequency difference of arrival (FDOA)
  • Gaussian mixture presentation of measurements-integrated track splitting (GMM-ITS)
  • Geolocation
  • Nonlinear estimation
  • Sensor fusion
  • Time difference of arrival (TDOA)
  • Tracking

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  • Darko Mušicki

  • Regina Kaune

  • Wolfgang Koch

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