Over the past decade, wireless sensor networks have advanced in terms of hardware design, communication protocols, resource efficiency, and other aspects. Recently, there has been growing interest in mobile wireless sensor networks, and several small-profile sensing devices that are able to control their own movement have already been developed. Unfortunately, resource constraints inhibit the use of traditional navigation methods, because these typically require bulky, expensive, and sophisticated sensors, substantial memory and processor allocation, and a generous power supply. Therefore, alternative navigation techniques are required. In this paper we present TripNav, a localization and navigation system that is implemented entirely on resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. Localization is realized using radio interferometric angle of arrival estimation, in which bearings to a mobile node from a small number of infrastructure nodes are estimated based on the observed phase differences of an RF interference signal. The position of the mobile node is then determined using triangulation. A digital compass is also employed to keep the mobile node from deviating from the desired trajectory. We demonstrate using a real-world implementation that a resource-constrained mobile sensor node can accurately perform waypoint navigation with an average position error of 0.95 m.
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