Modeling appraisal in theory of mind reasoning

  • Si M
  • Marsella S
  • Pynadath D
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Cognitive appraisal theories, which link human emotional experience to
their interpretations of events happening in the environment, are
leading approaches to model emotions. Cognitive appraisal theories have
often been used both for simulating ``real emotions{''} in virtual
characters and for predicting the human user's emotional experience to
facilitate human-computer interaction. In this work, we investigate the
computational modeling of appraisal in a multi-agent decision-theoretic
framework using Partially Observable Markov Decision Process-based
(POMDP) agents. Domain-independent approaches are developed for five key
appraisal dimensions ( motivational relevance, motivation congruence,
accountability, control and novelty). We also discuss how the modeling
of theory of mind ( recursive beliefs about self and others) is realized
in the agents and is critical for simulating social emotions. Our model
of appraisal is applied to three different scenarios to illustrate its
usages. This work not only provides a solution for computationally
modeling emotion in POMDP-based agents, but also illustrates the tight
relationship between emotion and cognition-the appraisal dimensions are
derived from the processes and information required for the agent's
decision-making and belief maintenance processes, which suggests a
uniform cognitive structure for emotion and cognition.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Appraisal
  • Decision-making
  • Emotion
  • Multi-agent system

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