A numerical model that includes the effects of mass transfer between mobile and immobilel iquid phasesa, dvectionh, ydrodynamicd ispersiona, nd melt-freezee pisodes was developed to simulate ionic solute transport in melting snow. Model calibration using a tracer-infusedla boratorys nowpacke xperimenty ielded a dispersivityo f 0.05 cm and a mobile-immobpilhea sem ass-transfceore fficienotf 4 x 10- 6 S- 1, but thesep arameter values are tentative because of the artificial nature of the experiment. The modeled concentrationo f meltwaterf lowingo ut the bottom of the snowpackw as sensitivet o residualw ater saturation,f low rate, dispersivitym, ass-transferra te, and the initial distributiono f solutew ithin the pack, similar to experimentalo bservationsT. he model was applied to a small watershed, and it was found that the ability of the model to accurately simulates olutem ovementd ependso n the validity of the assumptiono f one-dimensional flow and on the accuracyo f modelingt he snowpacke nergyb alance.
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