Several reports in the literature have drawn a complex picture of the effect of treatments aiming to modulate IL2 activity in vivo. They seem to promote indistinctly immunity or tolerance, probably depending on the specific context, dose and timing of their application. Such complexity might derives from the dual role of IL2 on T-cell dynamics. To theoretically address the latter possibility, we develop a mathematical model for helper, regulatory and memory T-cells dynamics, which account for most well-known facts relative to their relationship with IL2. We simulate the effect of three types of therapies: IL2 injections, IL2 depletion using anti-IL2 antibodies and IL2/anti-IL2 immune complexes injection. We focus in the qualitative and quantitative conditions of dose and timing for these treatments which allow them to potentate either immunity or tolerance. Our results provide reasonable explanations for the existent pre-clinical and clinical data and further provide interesting practical guidelines to optimize the future application of these types of treatments. Particularly, our results predict that: (i) Immune complexes IL2/anti-IL2 mAbs, using mAbs which block the interaction of IL2 and CD25 (the alpha chain of IL2 receptor), is the best option to potentate immunity alone or in combination with vaccines. These complexes are optimal when a 1:2 molar ratio of mAb:IL2 is used and the mAbs have the largest possible affinity; (ii) Immune complexes IL2/anti-IL2 mAbs, using mAbs which block the interaction of IL2 and CD122 (the beta chain of IL2 receptor), are the best option to reinforce preexistent natural tolerance, for instance to prevent allograft rejection. These complexes are optimal when a 1:2 molar ratio of mAb:IL2 is used and the mAbs have intermediate affinities; (iii) mAbs anti-IL2 can be successfully used alone to treat an ongoing autoimmune disorder, promoting the re-induction of tolerance. The best strategy in this therapy is to start treatment with an initially high dose of the mAbs (one capable to induce some immune suppression) and then scales down slowly the dose of mAb in subsequent applications.
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