Modeling of very low frequency (VLF) radio wave signal profile due to solar flares using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation coupled with ionospheric chemistry

  • Palit S
  • Basak T
  • Mondal S
 et al. 
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X-ray photons emitted during solar flares cause ionization in the lower ionosphere ({\textasciitilde}60 to 100 km) in excess of what is expected to occur due to a quiet sun. Very low frequency ({VLF}) radio wave signals reflected from the D-region of the ionosphere are affected by this excess ionization. In this paper, we reproduce the deviation in {VLF} signal strength during solar flares by numerical modeling. We use {GEANT}4 Monte Carlo simulation code to compute the rate of ionization due to a M-class flare and a X-class flare. The output of the simulation is then used in a simplified ionospheric chemistry model to calculate the time variation of electron density at different altitudes in the D-region of the ionosphere. The resulting electron density variation profile is then self-consistently used in the {LWPC} code to obtain the time variation of the change in {VLF} signal. We did the modeling of the {VLF} signal along the {NWC} (Australia) to {IERC}/{ICSP} (India) propagation path and compared the results with observations. The agreement is found to be very satisfactory.

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  • S. Palit

  • T. Basak

  • S. K. Mondal

  • S. Pal

  • S. K. Chakrabarti

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