Models and Tools for Stability and Change in Human Systems

  • Schein E
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Abstract

In this article, I will rst differentiate types of change that occur in human systems and will then provide a model that makes it possible to understand not only the nature of change but, equally important, the nature of stability. Change and stability are two sides of the same coin. Hence, consultants and managers have to be concerned about the management of both processes. Within the framework of stability and change, I will then examine what we mean by learning, especially as we apply that term to groups, organizations, and larger social systems. As we will see, learning is a perpetual process and one of many types of change that occur in human systems all the time. If such learning did not occur, such systems would not survive. But the learning that creates stability and culture is different from the learning that enables organizations to innovate as they encounter changing conditions in both their external and internal environments.

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Authors

  • Edgar H. Schein

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