Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a significant and costly challenge to the orthopedic community. The lack of a gold standard for diagnosis remains the biggest obstacle in the detection and subsequent treatment of PJI. Molecular markers in the serum and joint fluid aspirate hold immense promise to enhance the development of a firm diagnostic criterion. The primary goal is one marker with high sensitivity and specificity. Here, we review our current research efforts in the field of molecular markers: C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cells, and leukocyte esterase. Each marker has been studied to determine its sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values in diagnosing PJI.
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