Monitoring adherence to the international code of conduct: Highly hazardous pesticides in central andean agriculture and farmers' rights to health

  • Orozco F
  • Cole D
  • Forbes G
 et al. 
  • 22


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 23


    Citations of this article.


The WHO has advocated monitoring adherence to the Food and Agriculture Organization's Code of Conduct to reduce use of highly hazardous pesticides in lower and middle income countries. We re-framed Code articles in terms of farmers' rights and drew on survey data, farmer focus group results, and direct observations of agrochemical stores in Ecuador and Peru to construct indicators reflecting respect for such rights. Use of highly (Ia and Ib) and moderately (II) hazardous pesticides was common. Worse indicators were observed in places with lower education, greater poverty, and more use of indigenous languages. Limited government enforcement capacity, social irresponsibility of the pesticide industry, and lack of farmers' knowledge of the Code were all factors impeding respect for farmers' rights. Addressing the power imbalance among social actors requires informed farmer and farmworker participation in monitoring adherence and active involvement of non-governmental organizations and municipal governments.

Author-supplied keywords

  • Code of conduct
  • Developing countries
  • Food and agricultural organization
  • Human rights
  • Pesticides
  • Prevention and control
  • Vulnerable populations

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document

Get full text


  • Fadya A. Orozco

  • Donald C. Cole

  • Greg Forbes

  • Jürgen Kroschel

  • Susitha Wanigaratne

  • Denis Arica

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free