Morphological characteristics and microsatellite DNA genetic diversity of Nigeria African honey bee, Anhui apis mellifera and theirs hybrid generation II

  • Yu L
  • Xie W
  • Wu H
 et al. 
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Abstract

In this present work,we have investigated morphological characteristics and microsatellite DNA polymorphisms of Anhui Apis mellifera,Nigeria African honey bee and their Hybrid generationⅡ.The results showed that the average tongue length of Apis mellifera,African honey bee and their hybrid generationⅡ,respectively,is 6.09mm,5.23mm and 5.53mm,and a highly significant difference existed among them(P < 0.01);the average width of right forewing,respectively,is 3.35mm,8.42mm and 8.65mm;the average area of the anterior wing,respectively,is 15.18mm~2,13.23mm~2 and 13.95mm~2;the average length of right forewing cubital vein a,respectively,is 0.59mm,0.49mm and 0.55mm;the average length of tergum 3+4,respectively,is 4.38mm,3.80mm and 4.04mm;the average length of right forewing,respectively,is 9.06mm,3.12mm and 3.22mm,and a significant difference existed among them(P < 0.05);the average length of right forewing cubital vein b,respectively,is 0.18mm,0.17mm and 0.17mm,but no significant difference existed among them(P > 0.05);and the average index number of cubital vein Ci,respectively,is 3.31mm,3.07mm and 3.17mm. We further detected the microsatellite polymorphisms of Anhui Apis mellifera,Nigeria African honey bee and their Hybrid generationⅡ,and found 121 alleles.The mean number of effective alleles was 8.067,and the number of alleles per locus varied from 3 to 13,indicating that the three populations all have rich genetic diversities.The expected heterozygosity(He) of the three populations ranged from 0.5801 to 0.8526,and the average value of expected heterozygosity was 0.75910.0762.The polymorphism information content(PIC) ranged from 0.5158 to 0.8363,and the average value of the PIC was 0.72830.0879.The average expected heterozygosity of Anhui Apis mellifera,Nigeria African honey bee and their hybrid generation Ⅱ,respectively,was 0.6208,0.5780 and 0.7451.Statistical analysis indicated that highly significant difference in average expected heterozygosity existed between Nigeria African honey bee and hybrid generation Ⅱ,as well as between Anhui Apis mellifera and hybrid generation Ⅱ,but no significant difference existed between Anhui Apis mellifera and Nigeria African honey bee.The above results displayed that all three populations have high heterozygosity and rich polymorphism,and the hybrid generationⅡis highest in all three populations.The value of average genetic differentiation coefficient(FST) between Anhui Apis mellifera and Nigeria African honey bee was 4.36%,indicating that the differentiation level between the two populations was extremely high,and 8 loci were found to contribute significantly to this differentiation.In addition,the value of inbreeding coefficient(FIS) in each population was also very low(0.070),and all 15 loci were found to contribute significantly to this differentiation,indicating less inbreeding between Anhui Apis mellifera and Nigeria African honey bee.The Reynold′s distance values of Nigeria African honey bee and Anhui Apis mellifera was 0.725,and the Nm value was 0.213.These results showed that there are further Reynold′s distance and less gene flow between the two populations. These remarkable differences in morphological parameters might be caused by geographic isolation between Nigeria African honey bee and Anhui Apis mellifera in long term.Moreover,our findings indicated that morphological parameter values of the hybrid generationⅡwere lower than those of Anhui Apis mellifera,but were higher than Nigeria African honey bee,indicating that hybrid vigor in morphological characters is very significant.The genetic diversity index such as allele number,gene heterozygosity and polymorphism information content of the hybrid generationⅡ has also been significantly improved. 对来自安徽的意大利蜜蜂、尼日利亚非洲蜂与意大利蜂蜂王与非洲蜂雄蜂杂交所选育的杂交二代3个群体,利用形态学和微卫星DNA多态性相结合的方法进行研究 。对安徽意大利蜜蜂、尼日利亚非洲蜂及其杂交二代形态特征进行测量结果是,吻长平均值分别为6.09、5.23 mm和5.53 mm,右前翅宽平均值分别为3.35、8.42 mm和8.65 mm,前翅面积平均值分别为15.18、13.23 mm~2和13.95 mm~2,前翅肘脉a平均值分别为0.59、0.49 mm和0.55 mm,第3+4背板长平均值分别为4.38、3.80mm和4.04 mm,差异极显著(P≤0.01)。右前翅长平均值分别为9.06、3.12 mm和3.22 mm,差异显著(0.010.05)。对3个群体进行多态检测,共检测到121个等位基因,平均每个位点的等位基因数为8.067,单个位点的等位基因数从 3到13不等,表明3个群体都具有较丰富的遗传多样性。3个群体期望杂合度为0.5801至0.8526,平均期望杂合度为0.7591(0.0762) 。所有位点的多态信息含量为0.5158至0.8363,平均多态信息含量为0.7283(0.0879)。3个群体的平均期望杂合度,意大利蜜蜂为0. 6208,非洲蜂为0.5780,杂交二代为0.7451,非洲蜜蜂和安徽意蜂与其杂交二代之间差异均极显著,安徽意蜂与非洲蜜蜂之间差异不显著。3个群 体都具有较高的杂合度和较丰富的多态性,其中杂交二代最高。意大利蜜蜂和尼日利亚非洲蜂平均遗传分化系数FST为0.0436,两个群体间的分化程度极显 著,8个位点都极显著地贡献于这一结果。群体内的近交系数FIS较低,为0.070,15个位点显著地贡献于这一结果,表明非洲蜂与意大利蜜蜂的近交较少 。非洲蜂和意大利蜜蜂遗传距离为0.725,Nm值为0.213,两个群体间表现出较远的遗传距离,而且彼此之间基因流动较少。安徽意蜂和非洲蜂群体间长 期存在地理隔离,两个群体间形态指标差异显著,杂交二代群体形态指标低于安徽意蜂,但比尼日利亚非洲蜂均有不同程度的提高,在形态特征上体现了杂交优势, 两群体杂交二代等位基因数、基因杂合度及多态信息含量等遗传多样性指标均有显著提高。

Author-supplied keywords

  • African honey bee
  • Apis mellifera
  • Genetic diversity
  • Hybrid generation II
  • Microsatellite DNA
  • Morphological characteristics

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Authors

  • Linsheng Yu

  • Wenfei Xie

  • Houchang Wu

  • Yunding Zou

  • Quanyao Nan

  • Lincai Zhu

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