In this article we discuss how incentive motivations and task demands affect performance. We present a three-factor framework that suggests that performance is determined from the interaction of global incentives, local incentives, and the psychological processes needed to achieve optimal task performance. We review work that examines the implications of the motivation-cognition interface in classification, choice and on phenomena such as stereotype threat and performance pressure. We show that under some conditions stereotype threat and pressure accentuate performance. We discuss the implications of this work for neuropsychological assessment, and outline a number of challenges for future research.
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