Influenza remains a threat to public health, with immunization being a suitable method of infection prevention and control. Our understanding of the immunological regulations at the mucosa, antigen processing and presentation, and B-cell activation has improved, enabling research and targeted induction of immune responses at the site of antigen delivery. Nasal influenza immunization has distinct features compared with intramuscular vaccines, providing protection at the pathogen's entry site, higher levels of mucosal antibodies, cross-protection and needle-free application. This review summarizes our knowledge about mucosal immunity and the experience from clinical trials on the impact and safety of nasal influenza vaccination.
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