Bacteria are the leading cause of infections after solid organ transplantation. In recent years, a progressive growth in the incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-reistant (XDR) strains has been observed. While methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is declining in non-transplant and SOT patients worldwide, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, MDR/XDR Enterobacteriaceae and MDR/XDR non-fermenters are progressively growing as a cause of infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients and represent a global threat. Some SOT patients develop recurrent infections, related to anatomical defects in many cases, which are difficult to treat and predispose patients to the acquisition of MDR pathogens. As the antibiotics active against MDR bacteria have several limitations for their use, which include less clinical experience, higher incidence of adverse effects and less knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of the drug, and, in most cases, are only available for parenteral administration, it is mandatory to know the main characteristics of these drugs to safely treat SOT patients with MDR bacterial infections. Nonetheless, preventive measures are the cornerstone of controlling the spread of these pathogens. Thus, applying the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's and the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases's recommended antibiotic policies and strategies to control the transmission of MDR strains in the hospital setting is essential for the management of SOT patients.
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