We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of a coherently split one-dimensional (1d) Bose gas by measuring the full probability distribution functions of matter-wave interference. Observing the system on different length scales allows us to probe the dynamics of excitations on different energy scales, revealing two distinct length-scale dependent regimes of relaxation. We measure the crossover length-scale separating these two regimes and identify it with the prethermalized phase-correlation length of the system. Our approach enables a direct observation of the multimode dynamics characterizing one-dimensional quantum systems.
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