Multiple sclerosis affects many people, often in early adulthood, and causes significant disability. Natalizumab is a novel agent to be evaluated for multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease that has demonstrated unique efficacy but has unfortunately been implicated in three cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. This review covers the mechanism of action of natalizumab and efficacy for multiple sclerosis, the three cases of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, our understanding of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and the mechanisms that may account for these events.
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