In partial response to the demand for evidence-based practice, there is an increasing interest in the use of music therapy as procedural support for both invasive and non-invasive medical procedures. Clinicians and researchers are attempting to define how music therapy functions as procedural support in order to advance clinical practice and research, but concepts remain inadequately specified in the literature. The current philosophical inquiry used qualitative document analysis to critically examine the extant literature in music therapy as procedural support during invasive medical procedures. The aims of the analysis were to identify key concepts, provide definitions of those concepts, and begin to explicate the interrelationships among concepts related to music therapy as procedural support. A total of 19 clinical practice articles, clinical practice book chapters, and research articles met the criteria for inclusion in the analysis. Data analysis and synthesis resulted in a working model of music therapy as procedural support, in which the music therapist engages in a reflexive process of continually assessing the patient's responses in order to refocus the intervention lens (e.g., altering aspects of the music, of focus of attention, and of patient/therapist interaction) to positively influence outcomes. It is hoped that the working model of music therapy as procedural support may stimulate clinical dialogue and serve as an initial systematic step toward theory construction in this area.
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