Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of neurodegenerative and age-related diseases, causing damage to proteins, DNA, and lipids. A novel thiol N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4), the amide form of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and a Cu2+chelator, was assessed for its antioxidant and protective effects using human red blood cells (RBCs) as a model. AD4 was shown by flow cytometry to inhibit tert.-butylhydroxyperoxide (BuOOH)-induced intracellular oxidation in RBCs stained with the oxidant-sensitive probe 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. In addition, AD4 retarded BuOOH-induced thiol depletion and hemoglobin oxidation. Restoration of the thiol-depleted RBCs by externally applied AD4 was significantly greater compared with NAC and, unlike NAC, was accompanied by hemoglobin protection from oxidation. In a cell-free system we have demonstrated that AD4 reacted with oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to generate reduced glutathione (GSH). The formation of GSH was determined enzymatically using GSH peroxidase and by HPLC. Based on these results a thiol-disulfide exchange between AD4 and GSSG is proposed as the mechanism underlying the antioxidant effects of AD4 on BuOOH-treated RBCs. Together, these studies demonstrate that AD4 readily crosses cell membranes, replenishes intracellular GSH, and, by incorporating into the redox machinery, defends the cell from oxidation. These results provide further evidence for the efficient membrane permeation of AD4 over NAC, and support the possibility that it could be explored for treatment of neurodegeneration and other oxidation-mediated disorders. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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