■ Abstract Nanostructured fibrous materials have been made more readily available in large part owing to recent advances in electrospinning and related technologies, in-cluding the use of electrostatic or gas-blowing forces as well as a combination of both forces. The nonwoven structure has unique features, including interconnected pores and a very large surface-to-volume ratio, which enable such nanofibrous scaffolds to have many biomedical and industrial applications. The chemical composition of elec-trospun membranes can be adjusted through the use of different polymers, polymer blends, or nanocomposites made of organic or inorganic materials. In addition to the control of material composition, the processing flexibility in maneuvering physical pa-rameters and structures, such as fiber diameter, mesh size, porosity, texture, and pattern formation, offers the capability to design electrospun scaffolds that can meet the de-mands of numerous practical applications. This review provides a selective description of the fabrication of nanofibrous membranes and applications with specific examples in anti-adhesion in surgery and ultrafiltration in water treatment.
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