This review discusses recent progress in the development of hard X-ray microscopy techniques for materials characterization at the nanoscale. Although the utility of traditionally ensemble-based X-ray techniques in materials research has been widely recognized, the utility of X-ray techniques as a tool for local characterization of nanoscale materials properties has undergone rapid development in recent years. Owing to a confluence of improvements in synchrotron source brightness, focusing optics fabrication, detection, and data analysis, nanoscale X-ray imaging techniques have moved beyond proof-of-principle experiments to play a central role in synchrotron user programs worldwide with high-impact applications made to materials science questions. Here, we review the current state of synchrotron-based, hard X-ray nanoscale microscopy techniques—including 3D tomographic visualization, spectroscopic ele- mental and chemical mapping, microdiffraction-based structural analysis, and coherentmethods for nanomaterials imaging—with particular emphasis on applications to materials research.
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