Computational micromechanical studies of the effect of nanostructuring and nanoengineering of interfaces, phase and grain boundaries of materials on the mechanical properties and strength of materials and the potential of interface nanostructuring to enhance the materials properties are reviewed. Several groups of materials (composites, nanocomposites, nanocrystalline metals, wood) are considered with view on the effect of nanostructured interfaces on their properties. The structures of various nanostructured interfaces (protein structures and mineral bridges in biopolymers in nacre and microfibrils in wood; pores, interphases and nanoparticles in fiber/matrix interfaces of polymer fiber reinforced composites and nanocomposites; dislocations and precipitates in grain boundaries of nanocrystalline metals) and the methods of their modeling are discussed. It is concluded that nanostructuring of interfaces and phase boundaries is a powerful tool for controlling the material deformation and strength behavior, and allows to enhance the mechanical properties and strength of the materials. Heterogeneous interfaces, with low stiffness leading to the localization of deformation, and nanoreinforcements oriented normally to the main reinforcing elements can ensure the highest damage resistance of materials.
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