Need, level, and culture: Comments on Sheldon, Cheng, and Hilpert

  • Kitayama S
  • Na J
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In their target article, Sheldon, Cheng, and Hilpert (this issue) identify several interdependent levels in personality. Drawing on an earlier proposal by McAdams (1996), the levels identified by Sheldon et al. include personality traits (or dispositions), goals/motives, and self-narratives. Notably, they add yet another level called psychological needs. Further- more, the personality as constituted by these different levels of factors or dimensions is in turn embedded in social relations that are situated in a particular cultural context.

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  • Shinobu Kitayama

  • Jinkyung Na

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