The neural plasticity theory of depression: assessing the roles of adult neurogenesis and PSA-NCAM within the hippocampus

  • Sukoff Rizzo S
  • Neal S
  • Hughes Z
 et al. 
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Abstract

Depression is a devastating and prevalent disease, with profound effects on neural structure and function; however the etiology and neuropathology of depression remain poorly understood. Though antidepressant drugs exist, they are not ideal, as only a segment of patients are effectively treated, therapeutic onset is delayed, and the exact mechanism of these drugs remains to be elucidated. Several theories of depression do exist, including modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission, alterations in neurotrophic factors, and the upregulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and are briefly mentioned in the review. However none of these theories sufficiently explains the pathology and treatment of depression unto itself. Recently, neural plasticity theories of depression have postulated that multiple aspects of brain plasticity, beyond neurogenesis, may bridge the prevailing theories. The term "neural plasticity" encompasses an array of mechanisms, from the birth, survival, migration, and integration of new neurons to neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and the modulation of mature synapses. This review critically assesses the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the cell adhesion molecule, PSA-NCAM (which is known to be involved in many facets of neural plasticity), in depression and antidepressant treatment.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *Brain Chemistry
  • *Brain Stem
  • *Brain/drug effects/metabolism/physiopathology
  • *Conditioning (Psychology)
  • *Depressive Disorder
  • *Depressive Disorder/metabolism
  • *Diencephalon
  • *Dopamine
  • *Environment
  • *Exercise Therapy
  • *Experimental lab study
  • *Fluorescence
  • *Goals
  • *Health Knowledge
  • *Helplessness
  • *Histocytochemistry
  • *Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
  • *Life Change Events
  • *Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • *Medulla Oblongata
  • *Mesencephalon
  • *Monoamine Oxidase
  • *Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
  • *Nervous System Physiological Phenomena
  • *Neurogenesis
  • *Neurons
  • *Norepinephrine
  • *Parent-Child Relations
  • *Personality
  • *Personality Development
  • *Pharmacology
  • *Pituitary-Adrenal System
  • *Placebo Effect
  • *Predictive Value of Tests
  • *Rats
  • *Research
  • *Reserpine
  • *Serotonin
  • *Severity of Illness Index
  • *Social Environment
  • *Stress
  • *Treatment Outcome
  • 129 Strain
  • 5-ht
  • 5-hydroxytryptamine
  • 80 and over
  • ADHD
  • Active Transport
  • Adaptation
  • Adaptor Proteins
  • Adolescence
  • Adolescent
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones/*metabolism
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  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/metabolism
  • Adt
  • Adult
  • Affect
  • Affective neuroscience
  • Afferent Pathways/physiology
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aging/*psychology
  • Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology
  • Amygdala
  • Amygdala/*anatomy & histology/pathology
  • Amygdala/metabolism/physiopathology
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Anhedonia
  • Animal
  • Animal/*physiology
  • Animal/drug effects
  • Animals
  • Anterior cingulate cortex
  • Antidepressant
  • Antidepressant drugs
  • Antidepressive Agents/*pharmacology
  • Antidepressive Agents/*pharmacology/*therapeutic u
  • Antidepressive Agents/*therapeutic use
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  • Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology/therapeutic use
  • Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
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  • Brain Mapping
  • Brain Mapping/methods
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  • Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
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  • Brain/anatomy & histology/physiology/physiopatholo
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  • Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration &
  • Central Nervous System/drug effects/*metabolism
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  • Child
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  • China
  • Chromatography
  • Chronic Disease
  • Chronic unpredictable stress
  • Clinical Psychological Testing [2224]
  • Clinical Psychopharmacology [3340]
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
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  • Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism
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  • Cytokine/immunology/*metabolism
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  • Deep Brain Stimulation
  • Delivery of Health Care/*methods
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  • Depression
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  • Depression/*enzymology/pathology
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  • Depression/drug therapy/*physiopathology
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  • Depression/drug therapy/physiopathology
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  • Depressive Disorder/*psychology
  • Depressive Disorder/*therapy
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  • Hippocampus/*enzymology/pathology
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  • Humans
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  • Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism/physiopa
  • Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology
  • Hypothalamus/*metabolism
  • Ibs
  • Image Processing
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  • Immune System/physiology
  • Immunohistochemistry/methods
  • Inbred BALB C
  • Inbred C57BL
  • Inbred ICR
  • Inbred Strains
  • Individuality
  • Infant
  • Inflammation/complications
  • Interleukin-1beta/isolation & purification/*metabo
  • Interleukin-6/isolation & purification/*metabolism
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  • Ki-67 Antigen/metabolism
  • Knockout
  • Learned
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  • Life Style
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  • Ltd
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  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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  • Major depressive disorder
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  • Models
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  • Mood Disorders/*genetics/*physiopathology
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  • Mr
  • Muscimol/pharmacology
  • Nerve Growth Factor/biosynthesis/blood
  • Nerve Growth Factors/drug effects
  • Nerve Growth Factors/metabolism
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/*me
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins/biosynthesis/blood
  • Nervous System/metabolism
  • Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1/metabolism/*physi
  • Neural Pathways
  • Neural Pathways/*physiopathology
  • Neural Pathways/anatomy & histology/physiology/phy
  • Neural Pathways/drug effects/metabolism/physiopath
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Neurogenesis
  • Neurogenesis/*drug effects
  • Neurogenesis/*drug effects/physiology
  • Neurogenesis/*physiology
  • Neurogenesis/genetics
  • Neuroimaging
  • Neurological
  • Neuronal Plasticity
  • Neuronal Plasticity/*physiology
  • Neuronal Plasticity/genetics
  • Neurons/*analysis
  • Neurons/*physiology
  • Neurons/drug effects/metabolism
  • Neurons/metabolism
  • Neurons/physiology
  • Neuropeptides/metabolism
  • Neuroplasticity
  • Neurotransmitter Agents/*physiology
  • Neurotrophic factors
  • Ngf
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/metabolism
  • Norepinephrine/*metabolism
  • Norepinephrine/metabolism/*physiology
  • Nt-3
  • Nucleus accumbens
  • Oligodendroglia/*metabolism
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Organ Size
  • Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care)
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/*metabolism
  • Parents/*psychology
  • Parkinson Disease/physiopathology
  • Personality Development
  • Phenotype
  • Physical Conditioning
  • Physiological
  • Physiological/*physiopathology
  • Physiological/*physiopathology/psychology
  • Physiological/drug effects/physiology
  • Physiological/metabolism/*physiopathology
  • Pituitary-Adrenal Function Tests/methods
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  • Pituitary-Adrenal System/drug effects/metabolism/p
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System/drug effects/physiopathol
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism/*physiology
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism/physiopatholog
  • Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology
  • Placebos/administration & dosage/*pharmacology
  • Positron-Emission Tomography
  • Postmortem Changes
  • Practice
  • Preclinical
  • Prefrontal Cortex/*anatomy & histology/pathology
  • Prefrontal Cortex/*pathology
  • Prefrontal Cortex/*physiopathology
  • Prefrontal Cortex/blood supply/metabolism/*patholo
  • Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects/*physiology
  • Preschool
  • Prosencephalon/anatomy & histology/physiology/phys
  • Protein Precursors/biosynthesis/*blood
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  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism
  • Psychological
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  • Psychological/*metabolism
  • Psychological/*physiopathology
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  • RNA
  • Radiopharmaceuticals/diagnostic use
  • Radiopharmaceuticals/diagnostic use/pharmacokineti
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  • Receptor
  • Receptors
  • Regression Analysis
  • Remission Induction
  • Research
  • Response
  • Risk Factors
  • S-100b
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/*metabol
  • S100 beta
  • S100b
  • SSRIs
  • Self Concept
  • Serotonin
  • Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/*meta
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/*pharmacology
  • Serotonin/*analysis
  • Serotonin/*metabolism
  • Serotonin/drug effects/metabolism
  • Serotonin/metabolism
  • Serotonin/metabolism/*physiology
  • Sialic Acids/metabolism/*physiology
  • Signal Processing
  • Signal Transduction
  • Signal Transduction/drug effects
  • Signal Transduction/genetics
  • Smoking
  • Social Behavior
  • Sortilin
  • Spinal Cord/*analysis
  • Sprague-Dawley
  • Ssri
  • Stress
  • Synapses/*drug effects/metabolism/pathology
  • Theoretical
  • Thiazines/pharmacology/therapeutic use
  • Time Factors
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Tomography
  • Transformed
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology/metabol
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Treatment resistance
  • Treatment-Resistant/drug therapy/*metabolism
  • TrkB
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology/metabolism/
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism
  • Unipolar major depression
  • United States Food and Drug Administration/*standa
  • United States/epidemiology
  • Up-Regulation
  • Ventral Striatum/*metabolism/radionuclide imaging
  • Ventromedial prefrontal cortex
  • Vesicular Transport/blood
  • Wistar
  • Young Adult
  • active medication vs placebo
  • adherence
  • aging
  • antidepressant
  • antidepressant therapy
  • antidepressants
  • anxiety
  • bipolar disorder
  • brain-derived neurotrophic factor
  • brain-gut axis
  • chronic corticosterone administration
  • chronic stress
  • compliance
  • dentate gyrus
  • depression
  • dorsal hippocampus
  • dorsal raphe nucleus
  • duloxetine
  • environment
  • environmental enrichment
  • epidemiology
  • executive deficits
  • girls
  • glucocorticoid receptor
  • hippocampal neurogenesis
  • hippocampus
  • histopathology
  • hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
  • hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis
  • internalizing problems
  • interregional association
  • learning
  • long-term depression
  • long-term potentiation
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • major depression
  • major depressive disorder
  • mean effect sizes for changes in
  • medication
  • mental health
  • mineralocorticoid receptor
  • nerve growth factor
  • neuroplasticity
  • p75NTR
  • patients undergoing doubleblind antidepressant dru
  • positron emission tomography
  • postmortem
  • proBDNF
  • probiotics
  • psychobiotics
  • quality of life
  • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  • septo-temporal axis
  • serotonin transporter
  • side effects
  • stem cells
  • therapy/*metabolism/radionuclide imaging
  • third neurotrophic factor
  • trkB/biosynthesis/*blood
  • ventral hippocampus
  • ventral striatum
  • wisconsin card sorting test

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Authors

  • S J Sukoff Rizzo

  • S J Neal

  • Z A Hughes

  • M Beyna

  • S Rosenzweig-Lipson

  • S J Moss

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