This book is targeted for students of bioengineering, biomedical engineering, applied physiology, biological cybernetics and related fields, and for engineers and scientists who have an interest in neuroprosthetics. The text will also be useful for physicians and surgeons who are involved in the management of patients fitted with neuroprosthetic devices. In order to provide a comprehensive and up to date coverage of issues and topics relating to neuroprosthetics, a diverse group of scientists and workers in the field have provided a general overview of their chosen fields of interest with, in some cases, particular emphasis on their own areas of research. As such, the book can also be used for courses in applied neurophysiology or neuroprosthetics. Since it is aimed at a diverse audience with different backgrounds and training, the attempt has been to present a coherent overview of the field with detailed emphasis in selected areas of neural interfaces and neuroprosthetics. The covered topics will provide readers with sufficient background to understand the theory, rationale, design, and functioning of neuroprosthetic devices currently in clinical use and under development. Neuroprosthetics is maturing from a laboratory based science to providing engineered applications in clinical fields such as cardiac pacing, phrenic nerve stimulation, control of micturition, cochlear implants, deep brain stimulation, and control of limb function in paralyzed individuals. Increasingly, clinicians are playing an important role in the advancement of this field. However, neural engineering is rarely (if ever) taught to prospective physicians during their medical school and postgraduate education. This volume should help remedy this deficit. The practice of neuroprosthetics requires a fundamental understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system, mathematical neurobiology, material science, electrochemistry, and electrophysiology. These areas are reviewed in this text, with the aim of consolidating principles fundamental to understanding the field. The text assumes some familiarity with basic anatomy, physiology, calculus, electrophysiology, and bioinstrumentation, which typically are covered in undergraduate and first year graduate bioengineering curricula. Some degree of repetition has been included to emphasize certain aspects of the field, and to present them from somewhat different viewpoints to help the reader appreciate the range of their importance. Because modeling is an integral part of solving and defining critical engineering problems, the book addresses theory, modeling, and quantitative physiology as relevant to the understanding and design of neural interfaces.
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