The Pem homeobox transcription factor is expressed under androgen control in the testis and epididymis. It is also transcribed in the ovary, muscle, and placenta. The mouse Pem gene promoter was cloned and sequenced. It was analyzed in transactivation tests using CV-1 and PC-3 cells expressing the AR and found to be strongly stimulated by androgens. EMSAs and mutational analysis of the Pem promoter allowed the identification of two functional androgen response elements named ARE-1 and ARE-2. They both differed from the consensus semipalindromic steroid response element and exhibited characteristics of direct repeats of the TGTTCT half-site. Unlike the steroid response element, both Pem androgen response elements were selectively responsive to androgen stimulation. Specific mutations in the left half-site of Pem ARE-1 and ARE-2, but not of the steroid response element, were still compatible with AR binding in the EMSA. In addition, Pem ARE-1, but not ARE-2 or the steroid response element, showed some flexibility with regard to spacing between half-sites. These results strongly suggest that the AR interacts differently with direct repeats than with inverted repeats, potentially leading to cis element-driven selective properties. Thus, the existence of several classes of DNA response elements might be an essential feature of differential androgen regulation.
Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research
Choose a citation style from the tabs below