New Calcium Indicators and Buffers with High Selectivity Against Magnesium and Protons: Design, Synthesis, and Properties of Prototype Structures

  • Tsien R
  • 291

    Readers

    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • 1.5k

    Citations

    Citations of this article.

Abstract

A new family of high-affinity buffers and optical indicators for Ca2+ is rationally designed and synthesized. The parent compound is 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), a relative of the well-known chelator EGTA [ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] in which methylene links between oxygen and nitrogen are replaced by benzene rings. BAPTA and its derivatives share the high (greater than 10(5)) selectivity for Ca2+ over Mg2+ of EGTA but are very much less affected by pH changes and are faster at taking up and releasing Ca2+. The affinity of the parent compound for Ca2+ (dissociation constant 1.1 x 10(-7) M in 0.1 M KCl) may be strengthened or weakened by electron-releasing or -withdrawing substituents on the aromatic rings. The Ca2+ and Mg2+ affinities may further be altered by replacing the ether oxygens by heterocyclic nitrogen atoms. The compounds described are fluorescent Ca2+ indicators absorbing in the ultraviolet region; the very large spectral shifts observed on binding Ca2+ fit the prediction that complexation should hinder the conjugation of the nitrogen lone-pair electrons with the aromatic rings. Derivatives with quinoline nuclei are notable for their high sensitivity of fluorescent quantum yield to the binding of Ca2+ but not of Mg2+. Preliminary biological tests have so far revealed little or no binding to membranes or toxic effects following intracellular microinjection.

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document

Authors

  • Roger Y. Tsien

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free