Organic wastes are a suitable feedstock for the production of value-added products that have been insufficiently exploited due to their complexity, which challenges their transformation by conventional procedures. Gasification and pyrolysis of organic wastes can reduce this complexity by producing syngas (CO plus H2 and other C1 gases), which can be used as a valuable commodity by catalytic conversion into chemicals. However, the high cost and susceptibility to poisoning of chemical catalysts have encouraged research on biocatalysts that convert C1 components of syngas into different multi-carbon compounds. Nowadays, researchonsyngas fermentation is receivingmuchattention in order toenhance theproductivityofmicroorganisms by remodeling their metabolism and by optimizing the bioreactor operational conditions. This review highlights the new technical achievements of pyrolysis as well as the new biotechnological uses of syngas for the production of bulk chemicals and biopolymers, discussing themajor bottlenecks that challenge syngas fermentation.
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